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Foot Health Blog

Find expert articles from physical therapists and podiatrists to help understand, diagnose, and treat different foot health issues such as plantar fasciitis, bunions, flat feet, and more.
6 Most Comfortable Insoles for Weightlifters With Flat Feet
Flat feet6 Most Comfortable Insoles for Weightlifters With Flat FeetWhile weightlifting is not typically a high-impact sport, it does place your lower limbs and feet under intense strain—even more so if you have flat feet. Once the arches collapse, it negatively affects your posture and reduces your shock-absorbing qualities. This can increase your risk of injury, particularly to your knees, hips, and lower back. Therefore, the importance of wearing (correct) insoles cannot be overstated. Using orthotics for flat feet while weightlifting can aid with foot alignment, provide cushioning and comfort, and improve stability and mobility while providing overall support. Below we've listed the most comfortable insoles for weightlifters with flat feet. » Do all athletes use the same orthotics? Different athletes experience different benefits from orthotics 1. Upstep | Flat Feet Custom Orthotics ProsCustom-madeDesigned by seasoned podiatristsAdds stability and improves arch supportFSA and HSA eligible180-day money-back guaranteeConsShort waiting period before you receive your insoles Upstep Flat Feet Custom Orthotics improve arch support, weight distribution, and shock absorption. Designed by seasoned podiatrists, these insoles promote the alignment of the kinematic chain. Upstep custom insoles cradle your foot contours, given that they're custom-fitted to your foot shape. This provides a strong base that adds stability to help the weightlifter take their game to the next level. Upstep Flat Feet Custom Orthotics are affordable. Payment methods include FSA and HSA cards or interest-free installments via Klarna. Additional benefits include a 180-day money-back guarantee and free shipping and returns. Flat Feet Custom Orthotics 2. SOLE | Active Thick Insoles ProsEco-friendlyRelieves pressureAffordable90-day guaranteeConsMolding process may result in an uncomfortable fit SOLE Active Thick Insoles are designed to relieve pressure on your feet, a feature that's essential for weightlifters to minimize the risk of a foot injury. The insoles also give your feet extra cushioning and support. SOLE insoles are best with footwear that has a removable insert. They're recommended for those who engage in high-pressure activities since they can reduce plantar fascia strain and increase balance. SOLE insoles are eco-friendly and made from 100% recycled corks. It also features EVA that’s made of 20% waste. Together, these form a footbed that you must mold to your foot shape after purchase. However, by conducting the molding process yourself there is a chance that the insoles may not provide a perfect fit or sufficient support. Active Thick Insoles 3. Superfeet | FLEXmax Insoles ProsAerospring foamSemi-rigid arch supportComfortableDurableConsMay need trimming which can cause an incorrect fit Superfeet FLEXmax Insoles are semi-rigid arch support insoles with full-length Aerospring foam to support and cushion your feet. Superfeet insoles come with a rounded edge and feature a flexible heel cradle. The specialized FLEXmax design allows the insole to provide long-lasting comfort for roomy footwear. Its structured heel cups stabilize your ankle while the contoured design redistributes weight across your feet and reduces joint stress. However, these insoles may have to be trimmed to fit in your shoes. Trimming them incorrectly can result in an uncomfortable fit. FLEXmax Insoles 4. Tread Labs | Pace Wide Insoles ProsMedical-gradeFirm arch supportComfortable thick top coverMillion mile guaranteeConsNot tailor-madeCustomers' unique foot needs not addressed Tread Labs Pace Wide Insoles are medical-grade insoles that support your foot arches, improve alignment, and bring pain relief. Weightlifters with flat feet will benefit from the arch support and deep heel cups. The thick top covers give added comfort. These insoles are affordable, including interest-free installments via ShopPay. Tread Labs's million mile guarantee covers these insoles if they crack or lose their shape. While these insoles are better suited for wide feet, they're not custom-made and don't address your foot needs directly. Pace Wide Insoles 5. Protalus | M-75 Insoles ProsTri-planar technologyAnti-slip ridgesEVA foam bodyAffordable90-day money-back guaranteeConsMultiple sizes may not provide a perfect fit Protalus M-75 Insoles are semi-rigid orthotic arch supports that improve cushioning and comfort while walking. The 3/4-length insoles are best for wider shoes with non-removable inserts. These insoles aim to benefit anyone with flat feet as well as limit overpronation by keeping your ankle in a neutral position and maintaining the integrity of your arches. Protalus M-75 insoles use patented tri-planar technology and anti-slip ridges to improve balance and stability. An EVA foam body improves cushioning, and a moisture-wicking top cloth reduces moisture to control odor and slippage. While these insoles are available in multiple sizes, you may not necessarily find the perfect fit. M-75 Insoles 6. URthotics | Comfort+ Insoles ProsCustom-madeComfortableProvides stability and motion controlDeep heel cup for pain reliefFSA and HSA eligible6-months money-back guaranteeConsWaiting period before receiving your insoles URthotics Comfort+ Insoles guarantee extra comfort for your feet. These insoles are also tailor-made by podiatrists who factor in every detail about your foot shape, needs, and biomechanical state to create unique custom orthotics for you. The custom base provides stability and motion control while the deep heel cup offers pain relief and protection. Additionally, URthotics custom insoles are FSA and HSA eligible and come with a 6-months money-back guarantee. Comfort+ Insoles Conclusion Custom orthotics remain the best bet for weightlifters with flat feet. Asides from being designed to your exact foot specifications, they factor in the intended use and help optimize performance during weightlifting activities. » Want to see more custom orthotics? Visit Upstep's website
7 Most Comfortable Golf Shoe Inserts for Women With Flat Feet
Flat feet7 Most Comfortable Golf Shoe Inserts for Women With Flat FeetFlat feet often result in pronation. This means that, apart from increasing the risk of injury, the efficiency of energy transfer between the foot and the ground is reduced, causing discomfort and preventing optimal performance. As a golf player, this influences your stance and therefore your game. While getting the right golf shoes can limit this inefficiency, it won’t restore your foot arch. It's also difficult to find a golf shoe that fits properly, provides comfort, and improves performance. Therefore, getting a golf insole is an easy solution that can realign fallen arches and help improve your golf game from the ground up. But there are so many insoles on the market, each with its advantages and disadvantages. How do you choose? Below we've compiled seven of the best golf shoe inserts for women with flat feet for your easy reference. » Have flat feet but don't play golf? Browse these insoles for flat feet tested by physical therapists 1. Upstep Golf Custom Orthotics Upstep Golf Custom Orthotics are an affordable solution tailored toward golfers. Designed by professional podiatrists, these custom orthotics aim to help you stabilize your swing and soften any side-specific pressures. You will also receive maximum support for your foot arches, keeping them naturally aligned and in position. Custom orthotics are made specifically for you and your needs, therefore whether you're left- or right-handed is also taken into account—all in the effort to optimize your performance. Finally, Upstep's insoles have high-quality top covers and cushioned mid-layers to guarantee comfort while you’re on the golf course. » Should golfers wear orthotics? Discover the benefits of orthotics for golfers 2. Upstep Flat Feet Custom Orthotics Upstep Flat Feet Custom Orthotics aim to be long-term solutions to flat feet by reducing damage and easily fitting into your golfing lifestyle. Each case of flat feet may have different underlying causes, therefore a custom pair of insoles are made specifically for you and address your needs. Apart from holding up your foot arch, these orthotics are also durable and well-cushioned, providing effective support. Additionally, Upstep's insoles come with a risk-free 120-day-money-back guarantee that allows you to return the insoles and are HSA/FSA eligible. 3. SOLE Performance Thick Insoles Made from recycled wine corks, SOLE Performance Thick Insoles provide cushioning and balanced support. It also has a deep heel cup that stabilizes the heel and prevents sliding from left to right, improving your stance and performance. Additionally, its Polygiene-treated fabric will also keep your feet smelling fresh for as long as possible. However, these insoles may not fit in your golf shoes and do not come fitted. They are heat- and wear-moldable, but this is not as effective as custom orthotics and may not provide maximum support. 4. Protalus M-75 Insoles The Protalus M-75 Insoles are ideal for larger shoes with non-removable factory insoles. Their tri-planar alignment system guides your body into neutral alignment, improving your balance and stance. These insoles aim to provide comfort and support with each step with their pressure-reducing higher sides. The Protalus M-75 Insoles are easily purchasable over-the-counter and are sold in specific sizes but can be trimmed if necessary. Therefore, these insoles may not provide optimal support because the fit is not perfect like custom orthotics would be. 5. Superfeet Widegreen Insoles Superfeet Widegreen Insoles come with a 60-day comfort guarantee because of their stabilizer cap, extra wide and deep heel cup, and high-density foam—all geared towards offering maximum support and comfort. These insoles are easy to move and adjust, however, they can get squeaky because of this. Additionally, these insoles may not be as durable when compared to competitors and may wear out quickly. 6. Tread Labs Pace Wide Insoles Tread Labs Pace Insoles are affordable and ideal for golf shoes with full-length removable inserts. They're designed to address overpronation because their molded polypropylene arch support ensures stability, support, and balance during your game. Additionally, Tread Labs Pace Wide Insoles have a cushion foam top cover that keeps your feet comfortable while improving alignment. However, these insoles are not custom-made. Instead, they're available in different sizes and arch heights, so they don't match your feet or needs exactly. 7. URthotics Active/Sports Insoles URthotics Active/Sports Insoles ensure you get professional-grade inserts that factor in your unique foot shape and activity level. These insoles are custom-made based on a mold of your feet. The top covers of these insoles are made from EVA materials, thereby guaranteeing comfort, while their deep heel cups ensure maximum impact absorption and foot stability. URthotics insoles are effective but can be expensive when compared to competitors. Final Verdict Because of the negative impact flat feet can have on your golfing game, it's important to choose insoles that will address your needs and improve your performance. Each case of flat feet can be different, therefore you run the risk of less-than-optimal support from standard or over-the-counter insoles. Custom orthotics tailored toward your foot shape remove this risk and give you the maximum comfort and support you need to dominate on the golf course. » Experiencing knee pain while golfing? Find out how orthotics can help prevent golfer's knee
7 Best Cycling Shoe Insoles for Flat Feet
Flat feet7 Best Cycling Shoe Insoles for Flat FeetHaving flat feet is a disadvantage when it comes to cycling. Apart from contributing to pain due to repetitive stress, it reduces your ability to pedal optimally. While cycling shoes can help bridge some of this gap, a proper cycling shoe insole for flat feet will do more. Knowing an insole for flat feet will help is one thing. Choosing the right one with the different types available on the market is quite another. That’s why we have reviewed the insoles on the market and listed the best cycling shoe insoles for flat feet below. » How can you treat flat feet? Try these exercises for flat feet 1. Upstep Cycling Custom Orthotics With research suggesting that custom orthotics are better for flat feet than prefabricated ones, Upstep cycling custom orthotics rank highest in our list of cycling shoe insoles for flat feet. They're designed by professional podiatrists using your unique foot impression and personal lifestyle information. The insoles are made of high-quality materials, have a durable polypropylene shell, high-quality top covers, and well-cushioned middle layers to guarantee comfort every time. The benefits of cycling orthotics include durability, maximum support and comfort to the foot, limited overpronation, and easier pedaling during cycling. » Do you need additional support while cycling? Compare the best cycling shoe insoles for arch support and plantar fasciitis 2. Upstep Flat Feet Custom Orthotics Upstep flat feet custom orthotics are somewhat different from cycling custom orthotics as they directly address your flat feet condition. They have a reinforced heel counter and moderate arch support to maintain body alignment. Additionally, Upstep flat feet custom orthotics are affordable, and you can pay in installments or with your FSA and HSA insurance. » Looking for everyday flat feet orthotics? Consider these best insoles for flat feet 3. SOLE Performance Thin Insoles With Metatarsal Pad SOLE performance thin insoles score extra points because of their metatarsal pads which help relieve pain in the balls of your feet and support the natural spacing of the metatarsal bones. They come in multiple arch heights and help promote natural foot alignment, minimizing overpronation due to flat feet. They also have a 1.6 mm cushioning underfoot, ensuring everyday comfort during activities. SOLE Performance insoles are not custom fitted. Instead, they're heat- and wear-moldable, so you can get a fit that's as close as possible. 4. Tread Labs Dash Insoles Tread Labs Dash insoles are rigid insoles made from carbon fiber, making them light and super-thin. These are performance insoles meant to improve foot biomechanics and aid optimal energy returns during physical activity. Apart from having thick arch supports, these insoles also have 5mm thick, ventilated top covers to prevent your foot from sweating too much. Dash insoles come in four different arch heights. While the low and medium arches are the most suitable for flat feet, they're less effective than custom orthotics that would fit your foot perfectly. 5. Superfeet Trailblazer Comfort Insoles Superfeet Trailblazer Comfort insoles have a very unique shape and help to stabilize the foot on all kinds of terrain, including very rough ones. Its features include a deep heel cup to stabilize the ankle joint and two layers of heel-to-toe cushioning to reduce fatigue and provide comfort. While Superfeet trailblazer comfort insoles are affordable, they provide a short-term solution to a long-term foot challenge. They're not as durable and may need replacement often. 6. Protalus T-100 Elite Insoles Protalus T-100 elite insoles give the necessary arch support for all foot types. The insoles are full-length with semi-rigid orthotic arch support and a tri-planar system that keeps the ankle joint aligned and the foot stable. They're also made with moisture-wicking fabric and microbial lining to remove any odor from your feet if you sweat a lot. However, these insoles are not custom-fitted and come in specific sizes that may warrant trimming to fit foot contours. 7. URthotics Comfort+ Insoles Like the Upstep insoles, URthotics Comfort+ insoles are also custom fitted to the foot. They're designed not just based on the foot contour but also on any pre-existing foot conditions and potential activities. Ideally, URthotics comfort+ insoles are best for those with sensitive feet. While these insoles can be expensive, and unfortunately there are no options to pay in installments, you can purchase the orthotics with HSA and FSA cards. Final Verdict In the end, your choice of an insole depends on you. However, if you want quality and want to make a long-term investment, we recommend choosing custom orthotics. These insoles are customized to your feet and needs, thereby giving you the best support. Also, if you don't want to spend time breaking in your insoles, your custom orthotics will be ready to wear when you receive them. » Are custom orthotics beneficial for all sports? Explore the benefits of orthotics for different athletes
Can People With Flat Feet Be Top Athletes?
Flat feetCan People With Flat Feet Be Top Athletes?Flat feet are a common and generally painless foot condition. With flat feet, the entire sole touches the floor when you stand because of fallen or absent arches.‌ While it is asymptomatic in many people, some find that flat feet affect how they stand and move. Take a look at our post on a collapsed arch vs. flat feet to learn the difference. Can Flat Feet Hinder Sports Performance? Flat feet are generally asymptomatic and don't affect people's daily lives. However, flat feet can predispose the foot to overpronation. For an athlete, this can severely impact their performance. There is suboptimal energy transfer between the foot and the ground with overpronation. Consequently, the muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo more strain and have to exert more force. Without intervention, the cumulative biomechanical inefficiency will limit an athlete's performance. It can also lead to potential health complications. Disadvantages of Having Flat Feet as an Athlete The increased tension caused by overpronation will lead to heel pain, muscle spasms and weakness, ankle weakness, shin splints, and knee, hip, and back pain. There are also many secondary conditions to flat feet that may arise. Most sports also require a high degree of balance, speed, agility, and flexibility to change directions quickly. If the body has to do extra work, as is common with flat feet, it may be somewhat difficult for athletes to achieve such performance levels. The Importance of Correct Footwear for Athletes With Flat Feet There is suitable footwear available for every kind of sport. With flat feet, proper footwear takes on added importance. They can help keep your foot neutrally aligned, limiting overpronation and the added tension that comes with it. Generally, wearing footwear with limited flexibility, a supportive sole, proper cushioning, and reinforced heel counters are recommended for flat feet. In addition to the correct footwear, orthotics are also essential. They work together with footwear to restore foot health and provide foot support for flat feet. Apart from correcting malalignment, inserts and arch support also help improve your athletic performance by reducing the risk of injury, providing adequate support, and are designed to suit your specific requirements. The best insoles for flat feet come with arch support, a heel wedge, and a metatarsal bar. Are arch supports hurting your flat feet? Learn more about how it's possible to have too much arch support. Are There Top Athletes With Flat Feet? While flat feet can negatively impact performance, the right intervention has helped some top athletes rise above it. Among these athletes are Ethiopian marathon runner Haile Gebrselassie, the most reputed long-distance runner with four gold medals to his name, and American runner Alan Webb, whose record of running a mile in 3 minutes and 46 seconds took 14 years to break. There is also Saïd Aouita, Shawn Crawford, and Steven Plasencia, to name a few. Though flat feet can negatively affect performance, any athlete can bridge the gap and improve their performance with the right flat feet remedies.
How to Rebuild Arches in Flat Feet
Flat feetHow to Rebuild Arches in Flat FeetFlat feet are a common and usually pain-free condition that affects many people globally. This condition is commonly caused by the arches of the feet not developing during childhood. The lack of arch height means that the majority of the sole of the foot makes contact with the ground. Flat feet occur due to weakened muscles in the foot, trauma to the foot, or a range of other conditions such as obesity, pregnancy, injury, and ligament laxity. If left untreated, flat feet can lead to pain and disability. Can You Exercise With Flat Feet? The challenge of exercising with flat feet is that complications could arise in the feet and body without the benefits of arch support from corrective footwear or the best orthotics for flat feet. The arches act as a natural shock absorber for the body. Ensuring that you have proper footwear arch supports that can absorb some of the impact can be helpful in limiting pain and other complications, such as shin splints, from occurring. Exercises can help strengthen the arch of the foot and lead to a lower chance of developing pain or injury in the feet during exercise. How Much Can You Rebuild Your Arches Without Surgery? Treating flat feet using exercises can prove to be a difficult task. Conservative management strategies and exercises to improve flat feet have limitations in rebuilding the arch entirely and rather serve to maintain and support the arch as weight is applied to it. This is usually done in conjunction with orthotics. Should symptoms of unmanageable pain and discomfort arise, consult with a medical professional. Top Exercises to Rebuild Your Arches Arch Squeeze While sitting with your feet flat on the floor and keeping your toes flat on the ground, slide your forefoot backward towards your heel while squeezing the arch. Try to imagine you're trying to shorten the length of your foot. Hold it for 10–15 seconds. Relax your foot and repeat approximately 10 times per foot. Heel Raises Heel raises will strengthen the muscles of the foot and lower leg. This exercise can be done standing on a soft surface, preferably barefoot. Standing with feet shoulder-width apart, raise your heels off of the ground, going up onto the forefoot and toes. Hold for a second or two, and then lower your heels to the ground again. Repeat 10–15 times, two or three times a day.  Walking Barefoot on Soft Ground Walking on a soft surface such as sand or grass will require the use of the intrinsic muscles of the foot. These muscles aid in developing the arch as well as producing movement in the toes. Walking on soft ground challenges these smaller muscles of the foot, strengthening them in the process.  Marble Pick-Ups Sitting with marbles on the floor in front of you, pick them up with your toes and place them into a container. By picking up the marbles, you’ll be strengthening the intrinsic muscles of the foot. Aim for 10–15 marbles per foot. Other Treatments for Flat Feet and Fallen Arches  There are other treatment options available to help manage flat feet. These are most effective when used in conjunction with exercises for treating flat feet to help manage flat feet and secondary flat feet conditions.  Orthotics are a cost-effective way to provide your feet with the necessary support they need to prevent overpronated ankles, which can prevent pain from developing in other areas of the body. Orthotics will also reduce your chances of developing ankle injuries by controlling the ankle pronation that you may experience while walking or running. Massaging the muscles in the sole of the foot may provide relief to potentially tense muscles often associated with flat feet. A massage ball can also be used to target the muscles of the foot to provide you with similar relief of symptoms.  Two stretching exercises can be used to help manage this condition.  Plantar Foot Stretch Start by sitting with one leg crossed over the other. Your foot should be over the opposite knee. Apply a gentle stretch backward to the forefoot while relaxing the muscles in the rest of your leg. The stretch should be felt in the sole of the foot. Hold for 20–30 seconds and release. This will aid in stretching the arch and other overworked and fatigued muscles of the foot, thus reducing pain and discomfort.  Calf Muscle Stretch Stretching the calf muscles can greatly aid in maintaining mobility in the ankle joint. This will better allow the arches to keep their shape. Stretching of the calf muscle can be done against a wall or with your heel off the end of a step. Hold for 20–30 seconds and release. This can be done multiple times a day.  Medication can be used to aid you in reducing any pain you may be experiencing. Contact a medical professional should your feet suddenly become painful and swollen or if you are unable to walk. A medical professional can best advise how to manage this condition in order to prevent complications in the future.
Secondary Conditions Associated With Flat Feet
Flat feetSecondary Conditions Associated With Flat FeetFlat feet is a condition in which the foot arch flattens out completely, causing the whole sole of the foot to rest on the floor when standing. Flat feet can occur in childhood with the non-development of the foot arch and, in some cases, due to an injury to the foot arch or supporting tendon. How Do Flat Feet Affect the Body? Initially, flat feet are asymptomatic. The condition causes pronation and overpronation, with your foot and ankle rolling inwards when you walk so that you bear more weight on the inner border of your foot. This effectively pushes the foot out of alignment with the rest of the kinematic chain. To maintain your posture and balance, the lower leg muscles have to compensate for the malalignment. Consequently, there is more tension in some areas than usual, and over time, this may have complications or worsen existing injuries. Which Secondary Conditions Are Associated With Flat Feet? If this condition only affected the foot, it would not lead to as many problems—but unfortunately, it doesn't. The increased tension in the foot causes far-reaching complications that go beyond the foot, affecting the ankles, knees, hips, and even the spine. Many of these complications are also musculoskeletal. Some of the secondary conditions associated with flat feet include: Degenerative disc disease Flat feet increase the strain on the back, as weight transfer through the spine to the feet is incorrect. As a result, there is a quicker degeneration of the spinal discs, leading to symptoms such as severe back pain from flat feet. You may also experience weakness and numbness as nerves become impinged. Corns and calluses Because the entire sole is in contact with the ground, weight transfer is not as efficient. As a result, some areas of the foot bear more weight than others, causing painful corns and calluses to form on the foot.Toe deformities Flat feet also place extra stress on the big toe and second toe, causing deformities like bunions to develop on the toe. This, in turn, worsens the foot condition and a vicious cycle of pain, and more pain results.Plantar fasciitis This refers to the inflammation of the plantar fascia—the long ligament located at the bottom of the foot, which supports the foot arch. Flat feet put extra strain on the plantar fascia, resulting in irritability and inflammation.Degenerative changes in the ankle and foot joints Evidence suggests that degeneration is faster in the ankle and foot joints of people with flat feet due to the inefficient transfer of energy through those joints. It can even cause the feet to feel too weak to support the body. The insides and bottom of the feet will also have an increased penchant for swelling after prolonged standing or walking.Knee pain Flat feet predispose the foot to excessive pronation, which in turn causes the knees to rotate internally into a "knock-kneed" position. This leads to patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome.Hip pain Flat feet affect the gait, and the body's attempt to compensate increases the tension on the joints, muscles, and ligaments of the hip, causing hip pain. How to Prevent Flat Feet From Causing Further Problems At first, flat feet are not at all symptomatic. It is best to keep it this way and prevent flat-foot complications from setting in. At this point, interventions aim to support the fallen arches, strengthen the feet and ankles, and relieve pain symptoms. There are both conservative and invasive treatments for flat feet. The following treatments are commonly used to prevent flat feet from causing further issues: Use of orthotics Orthotics inserts can help relieve some of the load placed on the foot by its inward roll during overpronation. There are various types of custom orthotics, and you will need to determine whether rigid or soft orthotics are best for your needs. Orthotics reduce the chances of developing overuse or strain injuries during physical activity.Physical therapy A physiotherapist will prescribe the appropriate strengthening and stretching exercises for flat feet. These help strengthen the muscles of the lower leg and the arch and stretch any taut tendons and muscles to relieve the strain on them. Joint mobilization may also be incorporated to loosen up jarred joints.Proper footwear Supportive footwear with wide toe spaces will support the foot, elevate the foot arch, and give the toes wiggle room. Finding the best insoles for your flat feet is also highly recommended. If you're looking for further information, take a look at this article on the best footwear and insoles for flat feet from a physical therapist's perspective.Bracing or Taping Bracing or taping the feet in a certain way can help position the foot correctly and stabilize it. This treatment is often advised at the acute stage. Surgical intervention Where the above treatments are conservative, sometimes more invasive methods are required. If flat feet are due to structural problems, surgery may be necessary to restore the foot to its anatomical position.
Best Exercises for Treating Flat Feet
Flat feetBest Exercises for Treating Flat FeetFlat feet are a common condition, referring to a loss of arch height or reduced development of the arches of the foot from childhood. Lower arches cause more of the sole of the foot to be in contact with the ground. This is called overpronation of the foot and ankle complex and is usually a result of weakened muscles in the arch and lower leg. There are other causes such as injury, ligament laxity, arthritis, pregnancy, and obesity that may contribute to flat feet. Complications such as shin splints, hammertoes, bunions, and plantar fasciitis can occur if flat feet are not treated effectively. How to Warm Up Before Exercising With Flat Feet A warm-up prepares the body for exercise, increasing the effectiveness of the activity while preventing pain. An example of a good warm-up is described in the three steps below. To start the warm-up, sit on a soft floor with your feet shoulder-width apart. Raise the toes of one foot off the ground, while maintaining contact with the floor with the rest of the foot. Raise for 5-10 seconds, then lower to the floor. Repeat ten times with each foot, three times daily.Sitting in the same position, raise the toes of one foot off the floor, and spread the toes evenly, holding for 5-10 seconds. Then repeat with the other foot. Again, sitting with feet shoulder-width apart, gently push the toes and forefoot into the ground, tensing the muscles in the arches of the foot. A slight outward ankle roll can be felt here. Next, while sitting, raise the heels and go up gently onto the toes and forefoot. Hold momentarily and lower back down onto the entire foot. You can do this with both legs at the same time, or it can be done one leg at a time to ensure well-controlled movement. Stretching Exercises for Flat Feet Foot stretching can be done by sitting with one leg crossed over the other and applying a gentle backward stretch to the forefoot. The stretch should be felt in the muscles in the sole of the foot. This will aid in stretching the overworked and fatigued muscles of the foot, thus reducing pain or discomfort. Stretching the calf muscles can greatly aid you in maintaining mobility in the ankle joint. By lengthening the muscular structures that could be putting a downward pull on the arch of the foot, some pressure is taken off the arch, giving it the ability to maintain its shape. Stretching the calf muscle can be done against a wall or with your heel off the end of a step. Hold for 15-20 seconds for optimal lengthening of the muscle tissue.Foot rolling is another great way to help you manage your flat feet. You can make use of a massage ball to relieve the muscles and tissues of the underside of the foot by pushing down on it, in a sitting position. The pressure against the ball will also apply a stretch to the plantar fascia of the sole, where inflammation could be leading to pain.  Strengthening Exercises for Flat Feet Toe crunches can be done sitting with your feet on a small towel or piece of material. Attempt to grip the material by curling the toes downwards and scrunching the towel up. You should feel the muscles in the arch area contracting and eventually slightly fatiguing. Heel raises can be done by standing with the feet shoulder-width apart, facing a wall for support. Raise onto the toes and forefoot, hold for one second, and then lower the heels back down to the ground. Repeat 10-15 times with both feet, simultaneously. Marble pick-ups are great exercises to strengthen the foot muscles and can be done by sitting with marbles on the floor in front of you. You then need to attempt to pick them up with your toes and place them into a container. By picking up the marbles, you’ll be strengthening the intrinsic muscles of the foot. Aim to pick up 10-15 marbles per foot.  Can Exercise Correct Flat Feet Permanently? Any possible pain or discomfort that could arise from flat feet can be effectively managed using a combination of exercises, stretching, and adequate daily foot support from orthotics or appropriate footwear. Flat feet, however, cannot be permanently cured with exercises alone or in conjunction with other forms of conservative management. Building and maintaining the foot arch can be difficult to do effectively and requires daily exercise. The strength gained from the arch exercises will help your feet absorb some of the shock placed through them when doing activities like running or jumping, and slow down how quickly they fatigue during exercise. This should significantly limit your chances of developing ankle pain or injuries in the foot-ankle complex and will relieve flat feet pain.
Running With Flat Feet: All You Need to Know to Prevent Injury
Flat feetRunning With Flat Feet: All You Need to Know to Prevent InjuryHaving flat feet is a common condition affecting many people around the world. It is characterized by a loss of arch height when weight is taken through the foot. While some develop symptoms like pain in the feet and lower legs, many people with flat feet can still participate in running and other physical activities largely symptom-free. Causes and Complications of Flat Feet Causes of Flat Feet Flat feet are usually seen in young children. As children grow, their arches strengthen to support more weight while walking. Flat feet in adulthood are typically a result of the arches not developing during adolescence. A sudden loss of arch height in adulthood is uncommon and could indicate a more serious issue. Flat feet can be a result of a variety of factors and conditions, including: Genetics Overuse and strainLigament laxity in the lower leg and structures of the footShortened or “tight” Achilles tendon Loss of intrinsic foot muscle strengthInjury to the foot, affecting the structures of the arch ArthritisDiabetes Obesity Pregnancy Complications of Flat Feet Flat feet are associated with a range of potential complications, which usually present themselves when the condition hasn't been sufficiently managed. Complications can arise after excessive exercise or physical activity when incorrect, unsupportive, or rigid footwear is worn, or when walking or running barefoot on hard surfaces.  Some examples of complications include: Pain in the arch or heel Shin pain/shin splints Bunions & calluses HammertoesNumbness in the footReduced mobility Back pain Muscles in the foot fatigue quickly  How to Prevent Injury When Running With Flat Feet Products to Use There are many products that provide the necessary support to prevent injuries or pain from occurring when running. They lower the strain placed on the lower leg while doing endurance running activities, which minimizes your chances of developing an overuse injury.  Custom running orthotics that fit correctly in your running shoe, without compromising comfort, are a good option for preventing complications from running with flat feet. The orthotics will prop the arch up when weight is applied, preventing the arch from dropping and the inward turn of the tibia, which is commonly associated with flat feet. This takes the strain off the rest of the body that is actively compensating for the reduced contribution of the feet to the gait cycle. Energy can therefore be used more efficiently, allowing you to run with better efficiency, without the risk of injury.  Techniques to Practice Exercise in conjunction with orthotics or supportive footwear can help align your feet and legs. As you run, your muscles fatigue, which causes pain after covering some distance. Exercises can strengthen the muscles of the foot that actively support the arch and lengthen some of the structures that may contribute to pulling the arch downwards. Other remedies, including self-massage, weight loss, and rest can also aid in relieving symptoms of flat feet. You can try the exercises below to target these structures and reduce overpronation. They can be done as a warm-up for running or in preparation for daily activities.  Arch squeeze: While sitting with your foot flat on the floor, slide the forefoot backward, toward your heel, and squeeze the arch. Hold it for 10-15 seconds. Relax the foot and repeat about 10 times per foot. Calf stretches: These can be done against a wall or using a step. Place your weight on your forefoot, usually one leg at a time, and slowly attempt to lower the heel to the ground. You should feel a gentle stretch at the back of the leg. Hold it for 15-30 seconds for true muscle lengthening. Foot stretches: Stretching the foot muscles can help relieve pain and muscle fatigue. Sitting on a chair, bring one leg up to rest horizontally over your other leg with your toes facing forward. Apply a gentle stretch to the toes, stretching them backward. Hold it for 15-20 seconds, then release. Repeat 4 or 5 times for each foot.Heel raises: Heel raises strengthen the muscles of the foot and lower leg that support the arch, and subsequently, the weight of the whole body. This exercise should be done on a soft surface, preferably barefoot. Standing with your feet shoulder-width apart, raise your heels off the ground, going up onto the forefoot and toes. Hold for a second or two, and then lower the heels to the ground again. Repeat 10-15 times, and repeat 2 or 3 times a day. Should You Run With Flat Feet? With the necessary self-management for flat feet, you can run and do all your normal daily activities with few symptoms. The combination of exercises and orthotics aids in maintaining your foot arch and preventing strain injuries during endurance activities. Should adverse symptoms persist, consult a medical practitioner for professional care. 
A PT’s Opinion on the Best Footwear and Insoles for Flat Feet
Flat feetA PT’s Opinion on the Best Footwear and Insoles for Flat FeetFlat feet is a common foot disorder in which the entire sole is in contact with the ground while standing or walking. As simple as that sounds, flat feet is a complex deformity with varying types and stages depending on the degree of symptoms and associated disability. Flat feet are of two types: either flexible or rigid flat feet. With flexible flatfoot, the foot arch is normal at rest but disappears on contact with the ground. It is also known as pediatric flat foot and is often discovered in childhood. For rigid flat feet, the foot shows no arch whether sitting or standing. When it occurs in adults, it is known as adult acquired flatfoot or posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. The result is a complete flattening of the arch and an inward roll of the ankle. While flatfoot can be congenital, it can also be acquired. When it is acquired, some of the other possible causes include; Achilles tendon injuriesTrauma to the foot and its jointsMuscle dysfunction Cerebral palsyDiabetesDown syndromeHigh blood pressureObesityPregnancyRheumatoid arthritisAdvancing age Is Barefoot Walking Good for Flat Feet? A recent study by Sharath Hullumani Vtudy and Purusotham Chippala suggests that walking barefoot is effective in dealing with flat feet in school children as it ensures the even distribution of the body weight across the feet. However, this is not recommended for adults with flat feet. The Best Shoes for Flat Feet It isn't just barefoot walking that is good for flat feet. Shoes have the added advantage of contributing to the curative restoration of the foot into its normal anatomical position. But what kind of shoes are best for correcting flat feet? The best shoes generally have the following in common; Supportive Soles A shoe with a firm, flexible, but cushioned sole will do wonders for flat feet. Such a shoe should enclose your heel so that it moves with the sole of your feet at all times. For this reason, sandals and flip-flops are not ideal for flat feet. It's even better if it is elevated around the midsole as this will take pressure off the midfoot. This arch support will help maintain the foot in alignment and preserve the integrity of the kinetic chain, limiting the chances of twisting your ankle, knee, or hip while moving. Elevated Heel Apart from a supportive sole, an elevated heel is an added advantage. A heel height of between one or two inches will take pressure off the middle of the foot and bring relief to foot pain. This is applicable for both dress and athletic shoes. Lace-Ups Having straps or laces helps you adjust the upper part of the shoe to fit your foot structure and shape. By accommodating the different parts of the foot in this manner, laced shoes ensure the even distribution of body weight in the sole. Summarily, laced shoes with firm, supportive soles and slightly raised heels are best for use with flat feet. Contrarily, shoes with narrow toe spaces, high heels, and that don't enclose the heel are terrible for flat feet. The Best Orthotic Insoles for Flat Feet Orthotic insoles are useful for correcting flat feet deformity. However, there are different types of orthotics depending on their intended use. The best orthotic insole is custom-made and designed to fit its intended user. Typically, it is made up of arch support, a heel wedge, and a metatarsal bar. While the arch support is built into the insole to support the inner foot arc, the heel wedge is an extra thickness on the inner part of the heel to limit its forward movement. The metatarsal bar takes the pressure of the metatarsal heads. A flat foot insole will not correct the flat foot deformity but it will prevent complications and limit the adverse effect of a malalignment of the foot on the body. Additionally, they can help cushion the feet during exercise, making the process more bearable and reducing the instances of flat feet pain. If you have rigid flat feet, a low arch insole with firm arch support will do. However, if you have flexible flat feet, a medium arch insole with firm arch support will serve you better. Can Proper Footwear Cure Flat Feet? Proper footwear alone cannot cure flat feet, but it can be used with the custom-designed orthotic insole to great effect. Proper footwear for flat feet must provide the needed support for the foot, elevate the arch, and allow enough space for moving the foot.

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